Columbian emeralds deposits are situated in the Cordillera Oriental, the eastern range of the Andes. They lie north to north-east of Bogotá, the Colombian capital, in the departments of Boyacá, Cundinamarca and Santander. The formations in which the emeralds are found are extensive enough to provide a satisfactory supply for the foreseeable future.
Sinkankas (1981) gives a chronology of the Colombian emerald. The best-known emerald-producing regions are to the north and east of Bogotá and can conveniently be described under the headings Muzo, Cosquez, Chivor, Gachala and Buenavista, following Sinkankas (1981). Colombian emeralds are mined from two zones: the western zone that hosts, from north to south, the Peñas Blancas, Cosquez, Muzo and Yacopi mining regions, and the eastern zone that hosts the Chivor/Somondoco and Cachala mining regions.